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English Studies Volume 99, - Issue 1. Published online: 5 Feb Published online: 9 Aug Published online: 18 Jul The Chaucer Bibliographies. The items in each category are arranged by date of publication and cross-listed. Includes an index and a summary of critical trends. Indexes by author and subject the contents of The Chaucer Review, — Fisiak, J[acek].
Includes several items on Chaucer. Santa Barbara, Calif. One entry on Chaucer 1. Raybin, David.
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Sutton, Marilyn, ed. The Chaucer Bibliographies, no. A comprehensive annotated bibliography of scholarly and critical discussion of PardPT, subdivided into the following categories: editions items ; bibliographies, indexes, and textual studies 56 items ; sources, analogues, and influences 82 items ; the Pardoner in GP items ; PardP 95 items ; PardT items.
Sylvester, Louise, and Jane Roberts. Cambridge: D. Putting the emphasis on could gives the line a much different feel, then if one emphasized I. Frost specialized in this sort of metrical subtletly, emphasizing words that might not normally recieve the ictus. One could conceivably stress could in the line above, but that would be subverting the Iambic pattern. And it is doubly effective because the line occurs twice. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones un der his pines, I tell him.
Spring is the mischief in me, and I won der. In these lines, 5 out of the feet are variant. Two trochaic feet and three feminine endings.
I think these lines make a stronger case for the juncture of meter and meaning. There is a sort of excitement and mischievousness in the tone of the speaker reflected, one could argue, in the disruption of the meter.
As Frost reads it, these are the most irregular lines in the poems — the moment when the two men exchange words. Interpreting Mending Wall : June 19 But what prompted me to write it is the fascinating reading from an acquaintance of mine. He is the Director of a New England private school and in his most recent newsletter, he wrote the following about the poem:. The more I read and teach this poem. After inviting the neighbor to repair the wall, a tradition that clearly brings the speaker pleasure, he then makes fun of him for caring about the wall.
First he assures his neighbor that his apples trees will not cross the wall to eat his pine cones. It ends with the aphorism — Good fences make good neighbors. This is what the reader of the poem walks away with. Hoffman writes:. The tone is held in suspension, allowing us to imagine it is said with either a shrug or a sneer. You say it in two different ways there.
Does the poem end sarcastically or does it only begin sarcastically and end with a different sort of respect. Human beings do more than build barriers. We cannot separate ourselves from the vagaries of life that, sometimes, seem almost mischievous, tearing down our most ingeniously devised walls. The speaker wants his neighbor to say it for himself. But if one reads the poem in this sense, then it seems as though the neighbor really does move in a kind of darkness.
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He comes to represent that part in us that refuses to give ourselves up to a world we cannot, ultimately, control. Call it impishness, perhaps. In the Road Not Taken , Frost describes the following experience:. I felt as if I was going to meet my own image in a slanting mirror. I verily expected to take up or absorb this other self and feel the stronger by the addition for the three-mile journey home.
Many of his poems are like argumentative engagements with himself. Frost himself said as much:.
So, if the speaker is allied with the vernal mischief of spring and its insubordinations, he is nevertheless set against them in his efforts to make the stones of the wall balance and remain in place… [ p. In short, the two opposed men in the poem fairly shape up into one, and his name is Robert Frost. Frost was responding to the president of Rollins College. He took both my hands to tell me I had written a true international poem. He makes boundaries and he breaks boundaries.
Just as we change, the best poems change with us. His metaphorical gifts were such that he could talk about himself and no listener would be the wiser.
Wordsworth’s Theory of Poetic Diction Essay
In many of his poems he slyly and not so slyly discusses himself, his poetry, his readers, his critics and the pushy. He merrily described this facility in his poem Woodchuck. My own strategic retreat Is where two rocks almost meet, And still more secure and snug, A two-door burrow I dug. With those in mind at my back I can sit forth exposed to attack As one who shrewdly pretends That he and the world are friends. All we who prefer to live Have a little whistle we give, And flash, at the least alarm We dive down under the farm. We take occasion to think.
And if after the hunt goes past And the double-barreled blast Like war and pestilence And the loss of common sense , If I can with confidence say That still for another day, Or even another year, I will be there for you, my dear, It will be because, though small As measured against the All, I have been so instinctively thorough About my crevice and burrow.
All of his poems are like a two door borrow. A theory if you hold it hard enough And long enough gets rated as a creed: Such as that flesh is something we can slough So that the mind can be entirely freed. Continuing this interpretation, flesh , for Frost, is synonymous with meter and rhyme — the techniques of traditional poetry. Two hundred years ago, a poorly written poem was readily dismissed no matter how elevated its content.
Today, when the only thing that separates Free Verse from prose is ego, the poems of award winning poets are almost solely praised for their elevated and socially relevant content.
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Frost compares such stuff to seaweed. With nothing left to the poetry but content or brain the daily tide the vicissitudes of readers and critics will hardly affect it whether the baths are smooth or rough. Frost is comparing free verse, and the subject matter of free free verse poets, to the amorphous jelly fish that moves whichever way the tide moves it. Oh, may the tide be soon enough at high To keep our abstract verse from being dry.
What other poems follow this pattern? It ends:. I have a mind myself and recognize Mind when I meet with it in any guise No one can know how glad I am to find On any sheet the least display of mind. Click on the link of you want to read my interpretation.
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The poem Mending Wall can be read in that tradition. Read the wall , perhaps, as a poem, not Mending Wall necessarily, but any poem. Two sides of Frost, the poet, appear. There is the playful Frost, the one that wants to tease and reveal, and there is the coy Frost, the Woodchuck, who is instinctively thorough about his crevice and burrow. This is the Frost who wants to keep something out.
Some kinds of poems, like walls, keep things out and keeps things in reserve and that is all the explanation needed. They want Frost to tell them what his poems are really about. They want to take down the wall.
The work of hunters is another thing: I have come after them and made repair Where they have left not one stone on a stone, But they would have the rabbit out of hiding, To please the yelping dogs. But Frost is of two minds and the poem stands between them. One Frost, in a sense, is all apple orchard the brighter wood with its associations of food, family and public and the other Frost is pine a darker, pitchier wood that is reticent and unrevealing.
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We keep the wall between us as we go. To each the boulders that have fallen to each. The Frost that teases and revels in suggestion and misdirection will have his say — the Frost of the Apple Orchard. But here there are no cows. The public Frost, the mischievous trickster, suggests Elves. He wants to know what the other Frost is walling in or out.
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