The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)


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They worshipped the personified forces of nature, but, even before they began to expand, they must have recognized one supreme god, since the name of the father-sky-god are quite similar in all of the languages of the Indo-European family: Sanskrit Dyaus pitar , Greek Zeus pater "Zeus" originally being pronounced something like "dzh-eh-oos" , and Latin Jupiter.

When the Aryans conquered an agricultural society, they often accepted the local goddesses and paired them off with their own gods as husband and wife, such as Zeus and Hera, Hephaestus god of the forge and Aphrodite goddess of sexual love , and so forth. In the Aryan society, and in the societies derived from it, the role and status of women -- since they could not be warriors except in myths like that of the Amazons -- was considerably diminished, and women were treated as inferior to men.

One could go on a great deal longer with this sort of thing, but you should recognize that all of this is really speculation and involves a great deal of reading the present back into the past.

Civilizations and Historical Patterns. An Approach to the Comparative Study of History

Archaeological work in Rumania over the past twenty years has uncovered settlements of peoples who were smelting bronze and using chariots long before the invasions of the chariot peoples began. Moreover, these early bronze-users were sedentary agriculturalists, and they appear to have expanded relatively peacefully into the peninsula of Europe.

Archaeology : India The First Civilization Documentary

The scholars of the nineteenth century saw the Aryans as the original Europeans, and it suited that century of European imperialism to picture their ancestors as strong and dynamic, a conquering people, sweeping down in their war machines to establish their overlordship over the various "lesser" peoples of Europe, Asia, and even Africa. It was also an era in which the monarchs and aristocracy of Europe were trying to hold on to their power in the face of popular uprisings and revolutions, and it suited them that people should view the original European, or White, "Race" as having been subject to a powerful elite.

Ancient Greek civilization

Finally, of course, it was an era in which women in the more advanced Western countries were demanding basic rights and a fair share of political and economic power in a society to which they were contributing a great deal. The picture of early Aryan society, the historic foundation of European society and culture, as male- dominated was an argument against such demands.

For all of these reasons, historians and archaeologists are now reacting against the traditional view of Aryan society and the conquests of the chariot peoples, and many are discarding the entire idea of an "Aryan people" as pure imagination and wishful thinking.


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This may be carrying things a bit too far. It was only a short jump from this to trying to discover the place where these people had originated.

List of time periods - Wikipedia

There were various theories, much study and even more argument, but most scholars accepted the idea that the original home of the people speaking the original Indo-European language from which all of the other languages had descended was probably somewhere near to, and northwest of, the Caspian Sea.

The scholars decided to call these ancient people Aryans , the name that the Indo-European-speaking invaders of India, and close to that of the conquerors of modern Iran in which name that of these people is preserved. They pictured the Aryans as a people comprised of small tribes, ruled over by a warrior chieftain who was also their lawgiver and believed to be descended from one of the gods.

One of the arguments used to support this view was the similarity of some words: the Latin rex , or "king"; the English word right spelled in that funny way because it was originally pronounced something like "wrecked" in the sense of "law," "justice," and so forth; rita , the Sanskrit root with which English "rite," "ritual" and similar words connected with the practice of religion are derived; and the English rich , or "wealthy". Aryan society, being primarily nomadic, was dominated by the males and this was reflected in their religion.

They worshipped the personified forces of nature, but, even before they began to expand, they must have recognized one supreme god, since the name of the father-sky-god are quite similar in all of the languages of the Indo-European family: Sanskrit Dyaus pitar , Greek Zeus pater "Zeus" originally being pronounced something like "dzh-eh-oos" , and Latin Jupiter. When the Aryans conquered an agricultural society, they often accepted the local goddesses and paired them off with their own gods as husband and wife, such as Zeus and Hera, Hephaestus god of the forge and Aphrodite goddess of sexual love , and so forth.

In the Aryan society, and in the societies derived from it, the role and status of women -- since they could not be warriors except in myths like that of the Amazons -- was considerably diminished, and women were treated as inferior to men. One could go on a great deal longer with this sort of thing, but you should recognize that all of this is really speculation and involves a great deal of reading the present back into the past.

Archaeological work in Rumania over the past twenty years has uncovered settlements of peoples who were smelting bronze and using chariots long before the invasions of the chariot peoples began. Moreover, these early bronze-users were sedentary agriculturalists, and they appear to have expanded relatively peacefully into the peninsula of Europe.

The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization) The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)
The Heroic Age of India (History of Civilization)

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